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Scalefree Newsletter

Delete and Change Handling Approaches in Data Vault 2.0 without a Trail

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In January of this year, we published a piece detailing an approach to handle deletes and business key changes of relationships in Data Vault without having an audit trail in place.
This approach is an alternative to the Driving Key structure, which is part of the Data Vault standards and a valid solution.
Though, at times it may be difficult to find the business keys in a relationship which will never change and therefore be used as the anchor keys, Link Driving Key, when querying. The presented method inserts counter records for changed or deleted records, specifically for transactional data, and is a straightforward as well as pragmatic approach. However, the article caused a lot of questions, confusion and disagreements.
That being said, it is the intention of this blogpost to dive deeper into the technical implementation in which we could approve by employing it. Read More

An Efficient Data Lake Structure

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Within a hybrid data warehouse architecture, as promoted in the Data Vault 2.0 Boot Camp training, a data lake is used as a replacement for a relational staging area. Thus, to take full advantage of this architecture, the data lake is best organized in a way that allows efficient access within a persistent staging area pattern and better data virtualization.

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Data Vault Use Cases Beyond Classical Reporting: Part 2

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As we first introduced within the first part of the Data Vault Use Cases article series, the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) can do more than just simple reporting and dashboarding. 

We previously explored how the EDW can help to improve data quality by implementing data cleansing rules. 

This can be applied by write-back operations that affect the source systems directly. Though this was only one example of how to add more value to the EDW.
The scalability and flexibility of Data Vault 2.0 offers a whole variety of use cases that can be realized, e.g. to optimize and automate operational processes, predict the future, push data back to operational systems as a new input or trigger events outside the data warehouse, to name a few.

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Capturing Semi-Structured Descriptive Data

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The previous articles within this series have presented hub and link entities to capture business keys as well as the relationships between business keys. To illustrate, the hub document collection in MongoDB is a distinct list of business keys used to identify customers. 

As to capture the descriptive data, which in this case is the describing factor of the business keys, satellite entities are used in Data Vault. As both business keys and relationships between business keys can be described by user data, satellites may be attached to hub as well as link entities as such:

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Identifying Additional Relationships between Documents

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The last article within our series recently covered the Data Vault hub entity which is used to capture distinct list of business keys in an enterprise data warehouse as most integration will actually occur on these hub entities themselves. However, there are scenarios in which the integration of data solely on these hub entities is not sufficient enough for the necessary end goal in mind. 

Consider this situation in which a sample data set, involving an insurance company, concerning customers signing car and home insurance policies as well as filing claims, each respectively. Though before moving forward with the example, it is important to note that there are relationships between the involved business keys, that of the customer number, the policy identifiers, and the claims.

These relationships are captured by Data Vault link entities and just like hubs, they contain a distinct list of records, as such, they contain no duplicates in terms of stored data. Thus, both will form the skeleton of Data Vault and later be described by descriptive user data stored in satellites.

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Integrating Documents from Heterogeneous Sources

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Within this part of our ongoing blog series, we would like to introduce a sample data set based upon insurance data. This data set will be used to explain the concepts and patterns expanded upon further in the post. That said, please consider the following situation: an insurance company utilizes two different operational systems, let’s say, a home insurance policy system and a car insurance policy system.

Both systems should be technically integrated, which means if a new customer signs up for a home insurance policy, the customer’s data should be synchronized into the car insurance policy system as well and kept in sync at all times. Thus, when the customer relocates, the new address is updated within both systems.

Though in reality, it often doesn’t go quite as one would expect, as, first of all, both systems are usually not well integrated or simply not integrated at all. Adding to the complexity, in some worst-case scenarios, data is manually copied from one system to the next and updates are not applied to all datasets in a consistent fashion but only to some, leading to inconsistent, contradicting source datasets. The same situation applies often to data sets after mergers and acquisitions are made within an organization.

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Document Processing in MongoDB

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In continuing our ongoing series, this piece within the blog series will describe the basics of querying and modifying data in MongoDB with a focus on the basics needed for the Data Vault load as well as query patterns. 

In contrast to the tables used by relational databases, MongoDB uses a JSON-based document data model. Thus, documents are a more natural way to represent data as a single structure with related data embedded as sub-documents and arrays collapses what is otherwise separated into parent-child tables linked by foreign keys in a relational database. You can model data in any way that your application demands – from rich, hierarchical documents through to flat, table-like structures, simple key-value pairs, text, geospatial data, and the nodes as well as edges used in graph processing.

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An Enterprise Document Warehouse Architecture

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A common requirement for enterprise data warehousing is to provide an analytical model for information delivery, for example in a dashboard or reporting solution. One challenge in this scenario is that the required target model, often a dimensional star or snowflake schema or just a denormalized flat-and-wide entity, doesn’t match the source data structure. Instead the end-user of the analytical data will directly or indirectly define the target structure according to the information requirements.

Another challenge is the data itself, regardless of its structure.
In many, if not most, cases, the source data doesn’t meet the information requirements of the user regarding its content. In many cases, the data needs cleansing and transformation before it can be presented to the user.

Instead of just loading the data into a MongoDB collection and wrangling it until it fits the needs of the end user, the Data Vault 2.0 architecture proposes an approach that allows data as well as business rules, which are used for data cleansing in addition to transformation, to be re-used by many users. To achieve this, it is made up of a multi-layered architecture that contains the following layers:

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Processing Enterprise Data with Documents in MongoDB

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Today’s enterprise organizations receive and process data from a variety of sources, including silos generated by web as well as mobile applications, social media, artificial intelligence solutions in addition to IoT sensors. That said, the efficient processing of this data at high volume in an enterprise setting is still a challenge for many organizations. 

Typical challenges include issues such as the integration of mainframe data with real-time IoT messages and hierarchical documents.
One of such issues being that enterprise data is not clean and might have contradicting characteristics as well as interpretations. This poses a challenge for many processes such as when integrating customers from multiple source systems.

Though, data cleansing could be considered as a solution to this problem. However, what if different data cleansing rules should be applied to the incoming data set? For example, because the basic assumption for “a single version of the truth” doesn’t exist in most enterprises. While one department might have a clear understanding of how the incoming data should be cleansed, another department, or an external party, might have another understanding. 

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DATA VAULT 2.0’s INVENTOR OFFERS UNPRECEDENTED ON-SITE ACCESS

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To all those that have been a part of the Scalefree journey up until this point,

We’d first and foremost like to thank you for all the contributions you have made in helping us build Scalefree into the firm it is today. All of your contributions and business have allowed us to create a success story beyond what was first imagined and for that we offer our gratitude.

That said, a recent development here at Scalefree has presented the company with the opportunity to offer unprecedented, on-site access to the man that helped make all of this possible, the inventor of Data Vault 2.0, Dan Linstedt.

Though before diving into the unique opportunity that presents you, a little about how we got here.

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